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 is the science of studying the Mechanics of a structure. Designing the skeleton of a building determines the real strength of the structure.

All parts of a structural steel framework of a structure shall be capable of sustaining the most adverse combination of dead loads, the prescribed superimposed roof and floor loads, wind loads, seismic forces where applicable, and any other forces or loads to which the building maybe reasonably subjected without exceeding the permissible stresses.

The following methods may be employed for the existing steel framework:


  1. Simple design

  2. Semi-rigid design

  3. Fully rigid design

  4. Plastic design


The above-mentioned methods are used as per their requirement.

For example, the Simple design Method is used where the end connections of the members in the structure do not develop restraint moments that would affect the structure.

Simple design

This method is based on elastic theory and applies to structures in which the end connections between members are such that they will not develop restraint moments adversely affecting the members and the structure as a whole and in consequence, the structure may, for the purpose of design, be assumed to be pin jointed.

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The method involved the following assumptions:


  1. Simply supported beams are used.

  2. All connections of beams, girders, or trusses are virtually flexible and are proportioned for the reaction shears applied at the appropriate eccentricity.

  3. The members in compression are subjected to forces applied at the appropriate eccentricities.

  4. The members in tension are subjected to longitudinal forces applied over the net area of the section.

  5. The plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending. The stress-strain relationship for steel is linear.

These assumptions are to be essentially followed for the successful implementation of the Simple Design Method.

Semi-rigid design Method

  • Semi-rigid Design Method permits a reduction in the maximum bending moment in beams suitably connected to their supports as compared to the Simple Design Method. In the case of triangulated frames, it permits rotation account being taken of the rigidity of the connections and the moment of the interaction of members.

  • In cases, where this method of design is employed, it is ensured that the assumed partial fixity is available and calculations based on general or particular experimental evidence shall be made to show that the stresses in any part of the structure are not in excess of those laid down,


Fully rigid design Method


  • The assumptions in this method of design are different from that of the Simple Design Method and Semi-rigid Design Method.

  • As the name suggests, this method involves the assumption of the end connections being fully rigid and capable of transmitting moments and shears.

  • If the method is used in convenient cases, it also gives economy in the weight of steel and saves construction costs.

  • The end connections of the members of the frame shall have sufficient rigidity to hold virtually unchanged original angles between such members and the members they connect. The design should be based on accurate methods of elastic analysis and calculated stresses shall not exceed permissible stresses.


Plastic Design Method

  • Plastic Design Method is a recently developed method of design as in it evolved in 1935 but even today there are many difficulties and problems in using this method and engineers are trying to solve it.

  • One of the drawback that the structural usefulness of the material is limited upto the ultimate load. This  method has its main application in the analysis and design of statically indeterminate frame structures.

  • This is the most economical method of design as compared to Simple Design Method, Semi-rigid Method and Fully rigid Design Method.

  • Structure provides striking economy as regards to the weight of the steel.

Types of structures:


There are four types of structures;

  • Frame: made of separate members (usually thin pieces) put together.

  • Shell: encloses or contains its contents.

  • Solid (mass): made almost entirely of matter.

  • liquid (fluid): braking fluid making the brakes.


Importance of structure Design:

Structural design is important in civil engineering because it helps to check that the structure is safe. Structural design gives all the vital information regarding foundations, floors, walls, beams, roof types and the quality of materials to ensure that any of the structures built meet all the safety requirements.

Principles of Structure Design

Structural Safety: Designing a structure which will not collapse. Serviceability: Designing a structure which people can use for a certain period of time without any damage or discomfort. Value Engineering: A systematic and organized approach to provide the necessary functions in a project at the lowest cost.

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